The Research Presentation is a new way of assessing the way in which we conduct and present our research for our photographic projects. The presentation can last a maximum of 20 minutes and will be a spoken analysis of the research and how this is going to inform the photographic practice. This post will show the research carried out and presented for the module assessment.
Disability Talks is a project that challenges the public perception and position of the disabled person in society. Following the dissertation, exploring the current position of the disabled body in photography and how to improve this, a personal awareness was developed in relation to discrimination and lack of acceptance in society for the disabled.
Although there seems to be a rise in the inclusion of the disabled body being shown and circulated, there still needs to be more change. In order to inflict change, there must be understanding.
Disability is an issue that affects around 11 million people in the UK (Department of Work and Pension, 2014). This seems a large amount, however, the majority of those with a disability or life limiting condition are unseen to the wider community; whether this be because the conditions are largely invisible or whether wider society has chosen to ignore it for numerous reasons. Parallel to the ignorance of society is the disabled community, who by no fault of their own have been discriminated against in many ways without their voice being heard. Their voice is what is portrayed through this photography project.
This presentation will explain how Disability Talks is informed through the research that has been undertaken.
Buxton’s dissertation (2016) explored the position of the disabled body in photography, as well as in wider society and explained how it can be improved. The theses covers two areas, Notions of Representation and Identity Politics. Social construct, Social spectacle, the gaze, Lacanian theory, Overall findings. The main points are shown below.
- Lennard J. Davis (1995, p. 131-132) discusses the idea of beauty and aesthetic value in relation to Medusa and Venus. Due to her adultery and provocative nature, she is transformed into an unsightly creature, and as a result, her provocative capabilities are disabled, as all who look at her are turned to stone. Davis describes how this is poignant in early disability studies and the idea of the gaze, as by decapitating her and making her unbearable to look at, we suffer a discomforting sensation (as described by Siebers, 2010, p. 85-86).
- “This can be interpreted, in respect of photography, that the disabled body is something that can only be included and understood if society changes their perceptions of them. Davis highlights that:
What does not occur to many people is that disability is not a minor issue that relate to a relatively small number of unfortunate people; it is part of a historically constructed discourse, an ideology of thinking about the body under certain historical circumstances. Disability is not an object – a women with a cane – but a social process that intimately involves everyone who has a body and lives in the world of the senses. Just as the conceptualization of race, class, and gender shapes the lives of those who are not black, poor, or female, so the concept of disability regulates the bodies of those who are ‘normal’. (1995, p. 2)”
- Millet-Gallant (2012, p. 115) discusses how Dianne Arbus’ work according to David Hevey (1992) is problematic as by photographing them, she is supporting the traditional freak show and therefore contributing to the objectification of the subject. Millet-Gallant (2012, p. 115) argues that due to this, a question has arisen, “does photography somehow offer an anonymous, disembodied gaze for the viewer versus other spectacle venues, particularly live ones?” In relation to the information about the gaze that has been explored in this section, the answer would be yes.
- Siebers (2008, p. 33) indicates three conclusions as to why the disabled body is viewed the way that it is. Siebers states that it is a combination of knowledge, identities and ideologies. This is reminiscent of Bate’s (2009, p. 63) idea of how we view an image depending on the social context. Goodley (2011, p. 1) supports the idea that disability studies are purely social phenomena. Millet-Gallant (2012, p. 53-54) applies the concept of disability being a social construct and applies it to the position of art and photography in the public eye. Millet-Gallant states that the acceptance of artwork in any form in society is controlled by society. This would indicate that in order to implement change in relation to the position of photography in society, one would need to implement change in the mindset of society as a whole.
- Overall found that photography is advancing but it isn’t where it needs to be. To inflict change we have to produce more images and make them more accessible.
Social Media Representation
There has been an influx of representation in the media regarding the position of the disabled in society.
- A large case that showed the fight one man, Doug Paulley, had because a mother and child would not move out of the disabled space on the bus. Cases like these show the battle disabled people have on a daily basis. Disabled passengers win partial Supreme Court victory in battle for priority use of bus wheelchair space (Bulman, 2017).
- Due to lack of public awareness, people like Lucy Britton reach out to the Internet about how they feel they have to perform their disability to be accepted as disabled. (Guest post: Invisible illness – ‘I’m fed up of having to perform my disability’, Britton, 2015).
- Scope supports this lack of acceptance by stating (Aiden and McCarthy, 2014) Current Attitudes Towards Disabled People. [Scope Leaflet]
Two thirds (67%) of the British public feel uncomfortable talking to disabled people. Over a third (36%) of people tend to think of disabled people as not as productive as everyone else. Over four fifths (85%) of the British public believe that disabled people face prejudice. A quarter (24%) of disabled people have experienced attitudes or behaviours where other people expected less of them because of their disability. One fifth (21%) of 18 – 34 years old admit that they have actually avoided talking to a disabled person because they weren’t sure how to communicate with them.
But how can we improve attitudes to disabled people?
Much of the discomfort people feel about disability may stem from a lack of understanding. Not enough people know a disabled person – nearly half (43%) of the British public say they do not know anyone who is disabled – and many are concerned that they will do or say the wrong thing when talking to disabled people or about disability.
- (Mencap, 2016) Here I am Campaign is a selection of portraits of those who have learning disabilities (shown in fig 1 and 2) to combat the negativity associated with it. The series, shot by Rankin, shows the people in a positive light and describes what they are, opposed to their disability.
- Time To Change (2017) campaign, Be In Your Mates Corner and Change A Life, shown in fig 3, is combating mental health stigma for men in the media much like Mencap (2016) is. This influx of awareness in the media is effective as they are showing the disabled as normal people. This is something that I aim to carry out in my project.
- Kate Magee (‘The Invisibles.’ 2016) describes how the head of scope Richard Lane stresses that he doesn’t want campaigns to “Slip into inspiration porn”. This is something that advertising of the Paralympics tends to do (Maisie McCabe, 2016). McCabe shows how Channel 4’s attempt at bringing the disabled to the forefront of the media was successful, however, it seems that it is something that dies after the games and then is revisited every four years. This is important when thinking of disability, as in order to inflict change; we must not display them as ‘other’ and always include disability in the media.
- Divya Parashar and Narayan Devanathan (2006) state that especially in magazine advertising has done little to alleviate the negative stereotypes associated with disability. This is something that the project will challenge.
- Jonny Cassidy (2017) wrote for BBC’s Disability Work Week about how UK businesses should be making things accessible and adapts their businesses in order to receive a share of the Purple Pound (which is estimated to be worth £249bn). By doing this, especially from places like the BBC, shows that the issue is moving forward. However, this can be interpreted in two ways; the UK economy is genuinely concerned about the welfare of the disabled community and wants to contribute to help move it forward. Or they simply want the money.
- Tina Stallard was the first photographer investigated in the research of this project (shown in fig 4 and 5). The series, Disability, is an intimate portrayal of the relationship between the disabled person and their carer. The testimonies shown with the portraits give a truth and understanding to them. However, this project focuses primarily on the visible disability, rather than the invisible. This is problematic as disability presents it’s self on a spectrum. This project is predominantly presenting its self for the awareness of the visible, which is something that I would like to avoid.
- Fig 6 and 7 show Christopher Capozziello’s (2011) project The Distance Between Us. The project is an intimate portrayal of the life of Capozziello’s brother and his interaction with the outside world. This is affective, however, the portraits are passive in that they just observe the life he has, rather than making a statement. This has lead me to decide that the project I will make will make a statement, as this is more likely to have an impact and inflict change.
- Leon Borensztein (2016) project Artists With Disabilities (shown in fig 8 and 9) is an intimate view of the disabled artists. The lack of contextualisation with the project (although the images are self explanatory) shows the disabled as just being good at art. This project is passive as well. Although the style of the portraits, coding them with something that the people are interested in, is something that I will carry through to my project. Fig 10 shows another series by Borensztein, Sharon (2016) that is a more intimate display of the life of the disabled. This intimacy and the recording of the unseen is something that I wish to carry on through my project.
- Emer Gillespie’s (2017) Picture You, Picture Me is an interesting project taken from the disabled and their families eyes. Gillespie states that:
Photography, by its nature as a visual medium, only shows the surface of what are complex relationships and subjective realities. There is a desire to examine and document subtle relationships in contemporary, re-envisioned family life. As a participant-observer, these images are my own examination of appearance and existence, perception and thought through the visual exploration of my modern family.
This approach is affective, shown in Fig 11, as it shows how the disabled see themselves in relation to nondisabled. This is important, especially in my own project, as to inflict change, there must be an understanding of the normality of disability in today’s day and age.
- Polly Braden (2016) project Great Interactions: Life with Learning Disabilities and Autism shown in fig 12 is a project that explores the achievements and milestones in the lives of those with learning disabilities and autism. The work was published in a book to raise awareness and also make it accessible. By putting the work in a book, it allows the viewer to shut away the topic as and when they please, however, it allows the viewer to understand the work with contextualization, which is often avoided in the media. Braden frames her work in the styles of paintings, much like Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper (1495-1498).
- Mark Neville’s (The Photographers Gallery, 2013) project Deeds Not Words, shown in fig 13, is a political comment on the lives of those affected by birth defects caused by environmental pollution in Corby, Northamptonshire. Neville created a book, which was not sold publically, but sent to the 433 local authorities in the UK in order to highlight the issue and inflict change. The project was successful and allowed for a greater understanding of the lives of those affected.
- Rosemarie Garland Thomson (2010, p24) stated that:
“The argument here is that bringing representations of people with disabilities into the public realm via traditional portraiture is an act of sociopolitical integration. To be recognized as a member of a traditionally socially discredited group such as ‘the disabled’ reduces one’s social capital. In contrast, being the subject of a public portrait symbolizes membership in a high status group, literally framing the subject as an appropriate member of the public sphere who is worthy of contemplation and commemoration.”
- From the research, the project needs to make a statement about the position of the disabled in society, showing them in a positive light, but not as something that is above others. The project will be a collaborative project that gives a voice to the disabled. The models that I am involving in the project have disabilities that are not always visible.
- The project will fall into four parts; a series of portraits showing the disabled people, a selection of discrimination landscapes, documentation of disability aids and finally photographs of the unseen.
- Fig 14 shows the style of portraits that will be hung, borderless on the wall in the exhibition. Photographing those with invisible illnesses is crucial as it will challenge the viewer’s perception of what disability looks like, as well as challenging the conventions of disability portraiture (Garland Thomson, 2010).
- Fig 15 and 16 show the discrimination landscapes. These will be shown in a book format, away from the portraits. The landscapes will be made up of landscapes where the subjects have been unaccepted as disabled. This is more prominent then is thought, and the participants have experienced it daily. By removing the landscapes away from the portraits, it is intended to make the viewer think before they discriminate against others.
- Fig 17 – 21 are documentation of disability aids. They will also be presented in book format. The disability aids are almost passes for those with hidden disabilities, and allow them to be accepted as disabled. By removing them from the portraits, again, we are challenging the idea that it is something that we cannot see, and that we should not judge.
- Fig 22 and 23 are photographs taken on 35mm disposable cameras by the participants of the project. They will document the lives and daily activities of them, giving a voice and insight into their lives as those with a hidden disability. They will explore the other elements of their lives as well, adding another layer to the portraits. The photographs will be presented in a book, much like a diary, to explore this.
- Overall, the project is successful in challenging the attitudes of society, however, it is something that needs to be constantly assessed and dealt with to achieve change.
Overall, I felt that this presentation was successful and the issues presented fully informed the development of my project. I will be posting again with the feedback given following this assessment.